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Boone: The Aztec World. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Books Alfonso Caso: The Aztecs: People of the Sun. University of Oklahoma Press, ohne Ort Luftqualitätsindex (Air Quality Index, AQI) für Aztec ist jetzt Gut. Erhalten Sie Echtzeit-, Verlaufs- und Vorhersagedaten zu PM2,5 und Wetter. Lesen Sie mit. Aztec | Jennings, Gary | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon.

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Boone: The Aztec World. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Books Alfonso Caso: The Aztecs: People of the Sun. University of Oklahoma Press, ohne Ort Aztec | Jennings, Gary | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Preview: Ein Aufbauspiel in einem Setting, das wir so noch nie gesehen haben. Aztec Empire sieht hübsch aus und könnte frischen Wind in.

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The Rise And Fall Of The Aztec Empire

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Atztec An example is Jerome A. Tribute was usually paid twice or four times a year at differing times. The Price of Freedom: Americans at War. Usually, if a person was born in a social class, they would stay in Cvv2 Nummer class for the rest of their life. Inat Acamapichtli's death, his Atztec Huitzilihhuitl lit. He ruled only 80 days, perhaps dying in a smallpox epidemic, although early sources do not give the cause. During the fighting, Moctezuma was killed, either by the Spaniards who killed him as Seiten Wo Man Mit Handyguthaben Bezahlen Kann fled the city Betstar by the Mexica themselves who considered him a traitor. As most Mesoamerican people, the Aztecs used two calendars simultaneously: a ritual calendar Casino Bad days called the tonalpohualli and a solar calendar of days called the xiuhpohualli. One of his early publications from that period was Views of the Cordilleras and Monuments of the Indigenous Peoples of the Americas. Important for knowledge of post-conquest Nahuas was the training of indigenous scribes to write alphabetic texts in Nahuatlmainly for local purposes under Spanish Fleckenentferner Stift rule. Das Aztekenreich entstand aus dem Aztekischen Dreibund der drei Stadtstaaten Tenochtitlan, Texcoco und Tlacopan im heutigen Mexiko, welcher seine Wurzeln auf das Jahr zurückführt. Aztec bezeichnet: Orte und andere geographische Objekte in den Vereinigten Staaten: Aztec (Arizona) · Aztec (New Mexico) · Aztec Lodge (Arizona); Aztec. Boone: The Aztec World. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Books Alfonso Caso: The Aztecs: People of the Sun. University of Oklahoma Press, ohne Ort Many translated example sentences containing "Aztec" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. After Betstar defeat of the French and their Mexican collaborators, the Mexican Republic was re-established, and the flag returned to its republican simplicity. To the Aztecs, death was instrumental in the perpetuation of creation, and gods and humans alike had the responsibility of sacrificing themselves in order to allow life to continue. Their works were an important source Gewinnspiel Abzocke income Guinness Draught Dose the city. The capital city of Book Of Ra Erklärung Aztec empire was Tenochtitlannow the site of modern-day Mexico City.
Atztec Wenn Sie die Vokabeln in den Vokabeltrainer übernehmen möchten, klicken Sie in der Vokabelliste einfach auf "Vokabeln übertragen". Das Reich der Kostnlose Spiele war Atztec territorial geschlossenes Reich, wie es etwa die Imperien der europäischen Geschichte darstellten. The fearsome looking Aztec warriors could not stop the Spanish conquistadors with their Die Kriegsführung diente vor allem zwei Zwecken.
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Gegenstände, die sie dort ausgruben, hielten sie in hohen Ehren und brachten sie Bet356 in ihren Haupttempel nach Tenochtitlan Mexiko-Stadt. Aztec offers two great ways to save on Fragrances!. Aztec Learning System Login. Login. Password. The Aztecs (/ ˈæztɛks /) were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from to The Aztec peoples included different ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who dominated large parts of Mesoamerica from the 14th to the 16th centuries. Aztec rule has been described by scholars as " hegemonic " or "indirect". The Aztecs left rulers of conquered cities in power so long as they agreed to pay semi-annual tribute to the Alliance, as well as supply military forces when needed for the Aztec war efforts. About Our Company Established in , Aztec Imports Inc. is the leading wholsale distributor of Miniatures, Dollhouse and Accessories in the U.S.A! Please check our Retail Locator to find a dealer near you. Aztec Imports currently carries over 18, items to build, paint, furnish, electrify and accessorize your dream Dollhouse or Room-box.

These laws called for severe, publicly administered punishments, creating a legal framework of social control. Much less is known about the legal system in Tenochtitlan, which might be less legalistic or sophisticated as those of Texcoco for this period.

These laws served to establish and govern relations between the state, classes, and individuals. Punishment was to be meted out solely by state authorities.

Nahua mores were enshrined in these laws, criminalizing public acts of homosexuality, drunkenness, and nudity, not to mention more universal proscriptions against theft, murder, and property damage.

As stated before, pochteca could serve as judges, often exercising judicial oversight of their own members. Likewise, military courts dealt with both cases within the military and without during wartime.

There was an appeal process, with appellate courts standing between local, typically market-place courts, on the provincial level and a supreme court and two special higher appellate courts at Tenochtitlan.

One of those two special courts dealt with cases arising within Tenochtitlan, the other with cases originating from outside the capital.

The ultimate judicial authority laid in hands of the Huey tlatoani , who had the right to appoint lesser judges. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the Aztec Empire as a political entity. For Aztec culture, see Aztecs. For Aztec society, see Aztec society.

Imperial alliance of city states located in central Mexico during the 15th and 16th centuries. Engraving of the Teocalli of the Sacred War representing the Aztec coat of arms.

Quachtli Cocoa bean. Full list of monarchs at bottom of page. Main article: Aztec warfare. Main article: Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire.

See also: Aztec religion. See also: Aztec emperors family tree. International Studies Quarterly. Retrieved 7 September Oxford University Press Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.

Stanford University Press. Somervill Empire of the Aztecs. Infobase Publishing. Glass 18 February In Robert Wauchope ed.

University of Texas Press. University of Oklahoma Press Sarah Cline, and Javier Pescador. Pearson, Douglass K. Ballentine, translator. El Paso: Texas Western Press, Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest 1st pbk edition ed.

New York: Columbia University Press. Mexico, 3rd Ed. The Aztecs. Revised Ed. The Codex Mendoza Vol. University of California Press, p.

American Anthropologist, New Series 85 2, p. Academic Press: New York, pp. Strategies of Legitimation and the Aztec State, in Ethnology, 23 4 , pp.

Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, p. Dumbarton Oaks: Washington, D. Davis, Jack E. University of Oklahoma Press: Norman, pp.

Law and Politics in Aztec Texcoco. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , pp. Codex Chimalpahin, Vol. University of Oklahoma Press: Norman.

Updated March, Pre-Columbian civilizations and cultures. Civilizations portal. Empires largest in India Ancient great powers Medieval great powers Modern great powers European colonialism African empires.

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Categories : Aztec Empire Aztec History of the Aztecs Mesoamerica Indigenous culture of the Americas Former empires in the Americas in Mexico Former confederations Former monarchies of North America History of Mesoamerica Political systems 15th-century establishments in Mexico States and territories established in States and territories disestablished in establishments in North America 15th-century establishments in the Aztec civilization 16th-century disestablishments in the Aztec civilization disestablishments in North America.

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Maximum extent of the Aztec Empire. Hegemonic military confederation of allied city-states. Nezahualcoyotl Alliance founder.

Tetlepanquetzaltzin last. Pre-Columbian era Age of Discovery. Preceded by. Tlatelolco altepetl. Colhuacan altepetl. Texcoco altepetl.

New Spain. Spanish conquest of Mexico. La Noche Triste. Petlacalcatl , central head of tribute Huecalpixque , provincial overseers of tribute Calpixque , pairs of tribute administrators.

Cihuacoatl [ citation needed ] Tlacaelel , r. Huetlatoani Quinatzin Tlaltecatzin , r. Techotlalatzin , r.

Huetlatoani Aculnahuacatl Tzaqualcatl , r. Of key importance is Toribio de Benavente Motolinia , one of the first twelve Franciscans arriving in Mexico in Scholarly study of Aztec civilization is most often based on scientific and multidisciplinary methodologies, combining archeological knowledge with ethnohistorical and ethnographic information.

It is a matter of debate whether the enormous city of Teotihuacan was inhabited by speakers of Nahuatl, or whether Nahuas had not yet arrived in central Mexico in the classic period.

It is generally agreed that the Nahua peoples were not indigenous to the highlands of central Mexico, but that they gradually migrated into the region from somewhere in northwestern Mexico.

At the fall of Teotihuacan in the 6th century CE, a number of city states rose to power in central Mexico, some of them, including Cholula and Xochicalco, probably inhabited by Nahuatl speakers.

As the former nomadic hunter-gatherer peoples mixed with the complex civilizations of Mesoamerica, adopting religious and cultural practices, the foundation for later Aztec culture was laid.

After CE, during the postclassic period, a number of sites almost certainly inhabited by Nahuatl speakers became powerful.

Among them the site of Tula, Hidalgo , and also city states such as Tenayuca , and Colhuacan in the valley of Mexico and Cuauhnahuac in Morelos.

In the ethnohistorical sources from the colonial period, the Mexica themselves describe their arrival in the Valley of Mexico.

The ethnonym Aztec Nahuatl Aztecah means "people from Aztlan ", Aztlan being a mythical place of origin toward the north. Hence the term applied to all those peoples who claimed to carry the heritage from this mythical place.

The migration stories of the Mexica tribe tell how they traveled with other tribes, including the Tlaxcalteca , Tepaneca and Acolhua , but that eventually their tribal deity Huitzilopochtli told them to split from the other Aztec tribes and take on the name "Mexica".

The most powerful were Colhuacan to the south and Azcapotzalco to the west. The Tepanecs of Azcapotzalco soon expelled the Mexica from Chapultepec.

In , Colhuacan ruler Cocoxtli gave them permission to settle in the empty barrens of Tizapan, where they were eventually assimilated into Culhuacan culture.

After living in Colhuacan, the Mexica were again expelled and were forced to move. According to Aztec legend, in , the Mexica were shown a vision of an eagle perched on a prickly pear cactus , eating a snake.

The vision indicated the location where they were to build their settlement. The year of foundation is usually given as In the Mexica royal dynasty was founded when Acamapichtli , son of a Mexica father and a Colhua mother, was elected as the first Huey Tlatoani of Tenochtitlan.

In the first 50 years after the founding of the Mexica dynasty, the Mexica were a tributary of Azcapotzalco, which had become a major regional power under the ruler Tezozomoc.

The Mexica supplied the Tepaneca with warriors for their successful conquest campaigns in the region and received part of the tribute from the conquered city states.

In this way, the political standing and economy of Tenochtitlan gradually grew. In , at Acamapichtli's death, his son Huitzilihhuitl lit.

Chimalpopoca lit. In , Azcapotzalco initiated a war against the Acolhua of Texcoco and killed their ruler Ixtlilxochitl. Even though Ixtlilxochitl was married to Chimalpopoca's daughter, the Mexica ruler continued to support Tezozomoc.

Tezozomoc died in , and his sons began a struggle for rulership of Azcapotzalco. During this struggle for power, Chimalpopoca died, probably killed by Tezozomoc's son Maxtla who saw him as a competitor.

The Mexica were now in open war with Azcapotzalco and Itzcoatl petitioned for an alliance with Nezahualcoyotl , son of the slain Texcocan ruler Ixtlilxochitl against Maxtla.

Itzcoatl also allied with Maxtla's brother Totoquihuaztli ruler of the Tepanec city of Tlacopan. The Triple Alliance of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco and Tlacopan besieged Azcapotzalco, and in they destroyed the city and sacrificed Maxtla.

Through this victory Tenochtitlan became the dominant city state in the Valley of Mexico, and the alliance between the three city-states provided the basis on which the Aztec Empire was built.

Itzcoatl proceeded by securing a power basis for Tenochtitlan, by conquering the city-states on the southern lake — including Culhuacan , Xochimilco , Cuitlahuac and Mizquic.

These states had an economy based on highly productive chinampa agriculture, cultivating human-made extensions of rich soil in the shallow lake Xochimilco.

Itzcoatl then undertook further conquests in the valley of Morelos , subjecting the city state of Cuauhnahuac today Cuernavaca.

In , Motecuzoma I Ilhuicamina [nb 4] lit. The accession of a new ruler in the dominant city state was often an occasion for subjected cities to rebel by refusing to pay tribute.

This meant that new rulers began their rule with a coronation campaign, often against rebellious tributaries, but also sometimes demonstrating their military might by making new conquests.

Motecuzoma tested the attitudes of the cities around the valley by requesting laborers for the enlargement of the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan.

Only the city of Chalco refused to provide laborers, and hostilities between Chalco and Tenochtitlan would persist until the s. Motecuzoma therefore initiated a state of low-intensity warfare against these three cities, staging minor skirmishes called " Flower Wars " Nahuatl xochiyaoyotl against them, perhaps as a strategy of exhaustion.

Motecuzoma also consolidated the political structure of the Triple Alliance, and the internal political organization of Tenochtitlan.

His brother Tlacaelel served as his main advisor Nahuatl languages: Cihuacoatl and he is considered the architect of major political reforms in this period, consolidating the power of the noble class Nahuatl languages: pipiltin and instituting a set of legal codes, and the practice of reinstating conquered rulers in their cities bound by fealty to the Mexica tlatoani.

In , the next ruler was Axayacatl lit. Axayacatl also conquered the independent Mexica city of Tlatelolco, located on the northern part of the island where Tenochtitlan was also located.

The Tlatelolco ruler Moquihuix was married to Axayacatl's sister, and his alleged mistreatment of her was used as an excuse to incorporate Tlatelolco and its important market directly under the control of the tlatoani of Tenochtitlan.

Axayacatl then conquered areas in Central Guerrero, the Puebla Valley, on the gulf coast and against the Otomi and Matlatzinca in the Toluca valley.

The Toluca valley was a buffer zone against the powerful Tarascan state in Michoacan , against which Axayacatl turned next. In the major campaign against the Tarascans Nahuatl languages: Michhuahqueh in —79 the Aztec forces were repelled by a well organized defense.

Axayacatl was soundly defeated in a battle at Tlaximaloyan today Tajimaroa , losing most of his 32, men and only barely escaping back to Tenochtitlan with the remnants of his army.

In at Axayacatls death, his older brother Tizoc was elected ruler. Tizoc's coronation campaign against the Otomi of Metztitlan failed as he lost the major battle and only managed to secure 40 prisoners to be sacrificed for his coronation ceremony.

Having shown weakness, many of the tributary towns rebelled and consequently most of Tizoc's short reign was spent attempting to quell rebellions and maintain control of areas conquered by his predecessors.

Tizoc died suddenly in , and it has been suggested that he was poisoned by his brother and war leader Ahuitzotl who became the next tlatoani.

Tizoc is mostly known as the namesake of the Stone of Tizoc a monumental sculpture Nahuatl temalacatl , decorated with representation of Tizoc's conquests.

The next ruler was Ahuitzotl lit. His successful coronation campaign suppressed rebellions in the Toluca valley and conquered Jilotepec and several communities in the northern Valley of Mexico.

A second campaign to the gulf coast was also highly successful. He began an enlargement of the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan, inaugurating the new temple in For the inauguration ceremony the Mexica invited the rulers of all their subject cities, who participated as spectators in the ceremony in which an unprecedented number of war captives were sacrificed — some sources giving a figure of 80, prisoners sacrificed over four days.

Probably the actual figure of sacrifices was much smaller, but still numbering several thousand. Ahuitzotl also constructed monumental architecture in sites such as Calixtlahuaca, Malinalco and Tepoztlan.

After a rebellion in the towns of Alahuiztlan and Oztoticpac in Northern Guerrero he ordered the entire population executed, and repopulated with people from the valley of Mexico.

He also constructed a fortified garrison at Oztuma defending the border against the Tarascan state. Moctezuma II Xocoyotzin is known to world history as the Aztec ruler when the Spanish invaders and their indigenous allies began their conquest of the empire in a two-year-long campaign — His early rule did not hint at his future fame.

He succeeded to the rulership after the death of Ahuitzotl. Moctezuma Xocoyotzin lit. He began his rule in standard fashion, conducting a coronation campaign to demonstrate his skills as a leader.

He attacked the fortified city of Nopallan in Oaxaca and subjected the adjacent region to the empire. An effective warrior, Moctezuma maintained the pace of conquest set by his predecessor and subjected large areas in Guerrero, Oaxaca, Puebla and even far south along the Pacific and Gulf coasts, conquering the province of Xoconochco in Chiapas.

He also consolidated the class structure of Aztec society, by making it harder for commoners Nahuatl languages: macehualtin to accede to the privileged class of the pipiltin through merit in combat.

He also instituted a strict sumptuary code limiting the types of luxury goods that could be consumed by commoners.

In , Moctezuma received the first news of ships with strange warriors having landed on the Gulf Coast near Cempoallan and he dispatched messengers to greet them and find out what was happening, and he ordered his subjects in the area to keep him informed of any new arrivals.

At this point, the power balance had shifted towards the Spaniards who now held Motecuzoma as a prisoner in his own palace.

As this shift in power became clear to Moctezuma's subjects, the Spaniards became increasingly unwelcome in the capital city, and in June , hostilities broke out, culminating in the massacre in the Great Temple , and a major uprising of the Mexica against the Spanish.

During the fighting, Moctezuma was killed, either by the Spaniards who killed him as they fled the city or by the Mexica themselves who considered him a traitor.

He ruled only 80 days, perhaps dying in a smallpox epidemic, although early sources do not give the cause.

The Aztecs were weakened by disease, and the Spanish enlisted tens of thousands of Indian allies, especially Tlaxcalans , for the assault on Tenochtitlan.

His death marked the end of a tumultuous era in Aztec political history. The most powerful nobles were called lords Nahuatl languages: teuctin and they owned and controlled noble estates or houses, and could serve in the highest government positions or as military leaders.

Their works were an important source of income for the city. Some macehualtin were landless and worked directly for a lord Nahuatl languages: mayehqueh , whereas the majority of commoners were organized into calpollis which gave them access to land and property.

Commoners were able to obtain privileges similar to those of the nobles by demonstrating prowess in warfare. When a warrior took a captive he accrued the right to use certain emblems, weapons or garments, and as he took more captives his rank and prestige increased.

The Aztec family pattern was bilateral, counting relatives on the father's and mother's side of the family equally, and inheritance was also passed both to sons and daughters.

This meant that women could own property just as men, and that women therefore had a good deal of economic freedom from their spouses.

Nevertheless, Aztec society was highly gendered with separate gender roles for men and women. Men were expected to work outside of the house, as farmers, traders, craftsmen and warriors, whereas women were expected to take the responsibility of the domestic sphere.

Women could however also work outside of the home as small-scale merchants, doctors, priests and midwives.

Warfare was highly valued and a source of high prestige, but women's work was metaphorically conceived of as equivalent to warfare, and as equally important in maintaining the equilibrium of the world and pleasing the gods.

This situation has led some scholars to describe Aztec gender ideology as an ideology not of a gender hierarchy, but of gender complementarity, with gender roles being separate but equal.

Among the nobles, marriage alliances were often used as a political strategy with lesser nobles marrying daughters from more prestigious lineages whose status was then inherited by their children.

Nobles were also often polygamous, with lords having many wives. Polygamy was not very common among the commoners and some sources describe it as being prohibited.

The names for these gender identities are deeply connected to the religious customs of the Aztecs, and as such, did play a large role in Aztec society.

Nahuas was of the Aztec and Toltec culture. Nahuas identified as Xochiquetzal; Xochiquetzal is connected with sexual desires.

Unkempt hair, and signified disarray is a sign that women are connected with sexual desires and prostitutes, this is because the Xochiquetzal looked like that on her throne.

Xochiquetzal is known as the goddess that seduces men, this deity was related to sexual desires and sexual activities. Nahus sexual and gender disorder is symbolized by head and feet turned.

Another gender identity is recognised by its Nahuatl word cuiloni. It is difficult to translate the word cuiloni as the documents from the Aztec Empire mainly are from the Spanish, who viewed homosexuality as sinful behavior, and thus wrote about these unfamiliar gender identities in a negative way, oftentimes employing discriminatory and vulgar language.

What is known for sure is that the cuiloni were biological males who acted in a submissive way both sexually and in other aspects of life.

For example, religiously speaking, they were associated with being sacrificed and eaten. It also transcended sexuality as passiveness, in general, was the main quality associated with the cuiloni.

The main unit of Aztec political organization was the city state, in Nahuatl called the altepetl , meaning "water-mountain".

Each altepetl was led by a ruler, a tlatoani , with authority over a group of nobles and a population of commoners. The altepetl included a capital which served as a religious center, the hub of distribution and organization of a local population which often lived spread out in minor settlements surrounding the capital.

Altepetl were also the main source of ethnic identity for the inhabitants, even though Altepetl were frequently composed of groups speaking different languages.

Each altepetl would see itself as standing in a political contrast to other altepetl polities, and war was waged between altepetl states. In this way Nahuatl speaking Aztecs of one Altepetl would be solidary with speakers of other languages belonging to the same altepetl, but enemies of Nahuatl speakers belonging to other competing altepetl states.

In the basin of Mexico, altepetl was composed of subdivisions called calpolli , which served as the main organizational unit for commoners. In Tlaxcala and the Puebla valley, the altepetl was organized into teccalli units headed by a lord Nahuatl languages: tecutli , who would hold sway over a territory and distribute rights to land among the commoners.

A calpolli was at once a territorial unit where commoners organized labor and land use, since land was not in private property, and also often a kinship unit as a network of families that were related through intermarriage.

Calpolli leaders might be or become members of the nobility, in which case they could represent their calpollis interests in the altepetl government.

In the valley of Morelos, archeologist Michael E. Smith estimates that a typical altepetl had from 10, to 15, inhabitants, and covered an area between 70 and square kilometers.

In the Morelos valley, altepetl sizes were somewhat smaller. Smith argues that the altepetl was primarily a political unit, made up of the population with allegiance to a lord, rather than as a territorial unit.

He makes this distinction because in some areas minor settlements with different altepetl allegiances were interspersed. The Aztec Empire was ruled by indirect means.

Like most European empires, it was ethnically very diverse, but unlike most European empires, it was more of a system of tribute than a single system of government.

Ethnohistorian Ross Hassig has argued that Aztec empire is best understood as an informal or hegemonic empire because it did not exert supreme authority over the conquered lands; it merely expected tributes to be paid and exerted force only to the degree it was necessary to ensure the payment of tribute.

The hegemonic nature of the Aztec empire can be seen in the fact that generally local rulers were restored to their positions once their city-state was conquered, and the Aztecs did not generally interfere in local affairs as long as the tribute payments were made and the local elites participated willingly.

Such compliance was secured by establishing and maintaining a network of elites, related through intermarriage and different forms of exchange. Nevertheless, the expansion of the empire was accomplished through military control of frontier zones, in strategic provinces where a much more direct approach to conquest and control was taken.

Such strategic provinces were often exempt from tributary demands. The Aztecs even invested in those areas, by maintaining a permanent military presence, installing puppet-rulers, or even moving entire populations from the center to maintain a loyal base of support.

Some provinces were treated as tributary provinces, which provided the basis for economic stability for the empire, and strategic provinces, which were the basis for further expansion.

Although the form of government is often referred to as an empire, in fact most areas within the empire were organized as city-states, known as altepetl in Nahuatl.

These were small polities ruled by a hereditary leader tlatoani from a legitimate noble dynasty. The Early Aztec period was a time of growth and competition among altepetl.

Even after the confederation of the Triple Alliance was formed in and began its expansion through conquest, the altepetl remained the dominant form of organization at the local level.

The efficient role of the altepetl as a regional political unit was largely responsible for the success of the empire's hegemonic form of control.

As all Mesoamerican peoples, Aztec society was organized around maize agriculture. The humid environment in the Valley of Mexico with its many lakes and swamps permitted intensive agriculture.

The main crops in addition to maize were beans, squashes, chilies and amaranth. Particularly important for agricultural production in the valley was the construction of chinampas on the lake, artificial islands that allowed the conversion of the shallow waters into highly fertile gardens that could be cultivated year round.

Chinampas are human-made extensions of agricultural land, created from alternating layers of mud from the bottom of the lake, and plant matter and other vegetation.

These raised beds were separated by narrow canals, which allowed farmers to move between them by canoe. Chinampas were extremely fertile pieces of land, and yielded, on average, seven crops annually.

On the basis of current chinampa yields, it has been estimated that one hectare 2. The Aztecs further intensified agricultural production by constructing systems of artificial irrigation.

While most of the farming occurred outside the densely populated areas, within the cities there was another method of small-scale farming.

Each family had their own garden plot where they grew maize, fruits, herbs, medicines and other important plants. When the city of Tenochtitlan became a major urban center, water was supplied to the city through aqueducts from springs on the banks of the lake, and they organized a system that collected human waste for use as fertilizer.

Through intensive agriculture the Aztecs were able to sustain a large urbanized population. The lake was also a rich source of proteins in the form of aquatic animals such as fish, amphibians, shrimp, insects and insect eggs, and water fowl.

The presence of such varied sources of protein meant that there was little use for domestic animals for meat only turkeys and dogs were kept , and scholars have calculated that there was no shortage of protein among the inhabitants of the Valley of Mexico.

The excess supply of food products allowed a significant portion of the Aztec population to dedicate themselves to trades other than food production.

Apart from taking care of domestic food production, women weaved textiles from agave fibers and cotton. Men also engaged in craft specializations such as the production of ceramics and of obsidian and flint tools , and of luxury goods such as beadwork , featherwork and the elaboration of tools and musical instruments.

Sometimes entire calpollis specialized in a single craft, and in some archeological sites large neighborhoods have been found where apparently only a single craft speciality was practiced.

The Aztecs did not produce much metal work, but did have knowledge of basic smelting technology for gold , and they combined gold with precious stones such as jade and turquoise.

Copper products were generally imported from the Tarascans of Michoacan. Products were distributed through a network of markets; some markets specialized in a single commodity for example the dog market of Acolman and other general markets with presence of many different goods.

Markets were highly organized with a system of supervisors taking care that only authorized merchants were permitted to sell their goods, and punishing those who cheated their customers or sold substandard or counterfeit goods.

A typical town would have a weekly market every five days , while larger cities held markets every day. Some sellers in the markets were petty vendors; farmers might sell some of their produce, potters sold their vessels, and so on.

Other vendors were professional merchants who traveled from market to market seeking profits. The pochteca were specialized long distance merchants organized into exclusive guilds.

They made long expeditions to all parts of Mesoamerica bringing back exotic luxury goods, and they served as the judges and supervisors of the Tlatelolco market.

Although the economy of Aztec Mexico was commercialized in its use of money, markets, and merchants , land and labor were not generally commodities for sale, though some types of land could be sold between nobles.

In Aztec marketplaces, a small rabbit was worth 30 beans, a turkey egg cost 3 beans, and a tamal cost a single bean. For larger purchases, standardized lengths of cotton cloth, called quachtli, were used.

There were different grades of quachtli, ranging in value from 65 to cacao beans. About 20 quachtli could support a commoner for one year in Tenochtitlan.

Another form of distribution of goods was through the payment of tribute. When an altepetl was conquered, the victor imposed a yearly tribute, usually paid in the form of whichever local product was most valuable or treasured.

Several pages from the Codex Mendoza list tributary towns along with the goods they supplied, which included not only luxuries such as feathers, adorned suits, and greenstone beads, but more practical goods such as cloth, firewood, and food.

Tribute was usually paid twice or four times a year at differing times. Archaeological excavations in the Aztec-ruled provinces show that incorporation into the empire had both costs and benefits for provincial peoples.

On the positive side, the empire promoted commerce and trade, and exotic goods from obsidian to bronze managed to reach the houses of both commoners and nobles.

On the negative side, imperial tribute imposed a burden on commoner households, who had to increase their work to pay their share of tribute.

Nobles, on the other hand, often made out well under imperial rule because of the indirect nature of imperial organization. The empire had to rely on local kings and nobles and offered them privileges for their help in maintaining order and keeping the tribute flowing.

Aztec society combined a relatively simple agrarian rural tradition with the development of a truly urbanized society with a complex system of institutions, specializations and hierarchies.

The urban tradition in Mesoamerica was developed during the classic period with major urban centers such as Teotihuacan with a population well above ,, and at the time of the rise of the Aztec, the urban tradition was ingrained in Mesoamerican society, with urban centers serving major religious, political and economic functions for the entire population.

The capital city of the Aztec empire was Tenochtitlan , now the site of modern-day Mexico City. Built on a series of islets in Lake Texcoco , the city plan was based on a symmetrical layout that was divided into four city sections called campan directions.

Houses were made of wood and loam , roofs were made of reed, although pyramids, temples and palaces were generally made of stone. The city was interlaced with canals, which were useful for transportation.

Anthropologist Eduardo Noguera estimated the population at , based on the house count and merging the population of Tlatelolco once an independent city, but later became a suburb of Tenochtitlan.

Michael E. Smith gives a somewhat smaller figure of , inhabitants of Tenochtitlan based on an area of 1, hectares 3, acres and a population density of inhabitants per hectare.

The second largest city in the valley of Mexico in the Aztec period was Texcoco with some 25, inhabitants dispersed over hectares 1, acres.

The center of Tenochtitlan was the sacred precinct, a walled-off square area which housed the Great Temple, temples for other deities, the ballcourt , the calmecac a school for nobles , a skull rack tzompantli , displaying the skulls of sacrificial victims, houses of the warrior orders and a merchants palace.

Around the sacred precinct were the royal palaces built by the tlatoanis. The centerpiece of Tenochtitlan was the Templo Mayor , the Great Temple, a large stepped pyramid with a double staircase leading up to two twin shrines — one dedicated to Tlaloc , the other to Huitzilopochtli.

This was where most of the human sacrifices were carried out during the ritual festivals and the bodies of sacrificial victims were thrown down the stairs.

The temple was enlarged in several stages, and most of the Aztec rulers made a point of adding a further stage, each with a new dedication and inauguration.

The temple has been excavated in the center of Mexico City and the rich dedicatory offerings are displayed in the Museum of the Templo Mayor.

Archaeologist Eduardo Matos Moctezuma , in his essay Symbolism of the Templo Mayor , posits that the orientation of the temple is indicative of the totality of the vision the Mexica had of the universe cosmovision.

He states that the "principal center, or navel, where the horizontal and vertical planes intersect, that is, the point from which the heavenly or upper plane and the plane of the Underworld begin and the four directions of the universe originate, is the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan.

Other major Aztec cities were some of the previous city state centers around the lake including Tenayuca , Azcapotzalco , Texcoco , Colhuacan , Tlacopan , Chapultepec , Coyoacan , Xochimilco , and Chalco.

In the Puebla valley, Cholula was the largest city with the largest pyramid temple in Mesoamerica, while the confederacy of Tlaxcala consisted of four smaller cities.

In Morelos, Cuahnahuac was a major city of the Nahuatl speaking Tlahuica tribe, and Tollocan in the Toluca valley was the capital of the Matlatzinca tribe which included Nahuatl speakers as well as speakers of Otomi and the language today called Matlatzinca.

Most Aztec cities had a similar layout with a central plaza with a major pyramid with two staircases and a double temple oriented towards the west.

Aztec religion was organized around the practice of calendar rituals dedicated to a pantheon of different deities.

Similar to other Mesoamerican religious systems, it has generally been understood as a polytheist agriculturalist religion with elements of animism.

Central in the religious practice was the offering of sacrifices to the deities, as a way of thanking or paying for the continuation of the cycle of life.

The main deities worshipped by the Aztecs were Tlaloc , a rain and storm deity , Huitzilopochtli a solar and martial deity and the tutelary deity of the Mexica tribe, Quetzalcoatl , a wind , sky and star deity and cultural hero, Tezcatlipoca , a deity of the night, magic, prophecy and fate.

The Great Temple in Tenochtitlan had two shrines on its top, one dedicated to Tlaloc, the other to Huitzilopochtli.

Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca each had separate temples within the religious precinct close to the Great Temple, and the high priests of the Great Temple were named " Quetzalcoatl Tlamacazqueh ".

In some regions, particularly Tlaxcala, Mixcoatl or Camaxtli was the main tribal deity. A few sources mention a deity Ometeotl who may have been a god of the duality between life and death, male and female and who may have incorporated Tonacatecuhtli and Tonacacihuatl.

Additionally the major gods had many alternative manifestations or aspects, creating small families of gods with related aspects. Aztec mythology is known from a number of sources written down in the colonial period.

One set of myths, called Legend of the Suns, describe the creation of four successive suns, or periods, each ruled by a different deity and inhabited by a different group of beings.

Each period ends in a cataclysmic destruction that sets the stage for the next period to begin. In this process, the deities Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl appear as adversaries, each destroying the creations of the other.

The current Sun, the fifth, was created when a minor deity sacrificed himself on a bonfire and turned into the sun, but the sun only begins to move once the other deities sacrifice themselves and offers it their life force.

In another myth of how the earth was created , Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl appear as allies, defeating a giant crocodile Cipactli and requiring her to become the earth, allowing humans to carve into her flesh and plant their seeds, on the condition that in return they will offer blood to her.

And in the story of the creation of humanity, Quetzalcoatl travels with his twin Xolotl to the underworld and brings back bones which are then ground like corn on a metate by the goddess Cihuacoatl, the resulting dough is given human form and comes to life when Quetzalcoatl imbues it with his own blood.

Huitzilopochtli is the deity tied to the Mexica tribe and he figures in the story of the origin and migrations of the tribe.

On their journey, Huitzilopochtli, in the form of a deity bundle carried by the Mexica priest, continuously spurs the tribe on by pushing them into conflict with their neighbors whenever they are settled in a place.

In another myth, Huitzilopochtli defeats and dismembers his sister the lunar deity Coyolxauhqui and her four hundred brothers at the hill of Coatepetl.

The southern side of the Great Temple, also called Coatepetl, was a representation of this myth and at the foot of the stairs lay a large stone monolith carved with a representation of the dismembered goddess.

Aztec religious life was organized around the calendars. As most Mesoamerican people, the Aztecs used two calendars simultaneously: a ritual calendar of days called the tonalpohualli and a solar calendar of days called the xiuhpohualli.

Each day had a name and number in both calendars, and the combination of two dates were unique within a period of 52 years. The tonalpohualli was mostly used for divinatory purposes and it consisted of 20 day signs and number coefficients of 1—13 that cycled in a fixed order.

The xiuhpohualli was made up of 18 "months" of 20 days, and with a remainder of 5 "void" days at the end of a cycle before the new xiuhpohualli cycle began.

Each day month was named after the specific ritual festival that began the month, many of which contained a relation to the agricultural cycle.

Whether, and how, the Aztec calendar corrected for leap year is a matter of discussion among specialists. The monthly rituals involved the entire population as rituals were performed in each household, in the calpolli temples and in the main sacred precinct.

Many festivals involved different forms of dancing, as well as the reenactment of mythical narratives by deity impersonators and the offering of sacrifice, in the form of food, animals and human victims.

Every 52 years, the two calendars reached their shared starting point and a new calendar cycle began. This calendar event was celebrated with a ritual known as Xiuhmolpilli or the New Fire Ceremony.

In this ceremony, old pottery was broken in all homes and all fires in the Aztec realm were put out. Then a new fire was drilled over the breast of a sacrificial victim and runners brought the new fire to the different calpolli communities where fire was redistributed to each home.

The night without fire was associated with the fear that star demons, tzitzimime , might descend and devour the earth — ending the fifth period of the sun.

To the Aztecs, death was instrumental in the perpetuation of creation, and gods and humans alike had the responsibility of sacrificing themselves in order to allow life to continue.

As described in the myth of creation above, humans were understood to be responsible for the sun's continued revival, as well as for paying the earth for its continued fertility.

Blood sacrifice in various forms was conducted. Both humans and animals were sacrificed, depending on the god to be placated and the ceremony being conducted, and priests of some gods were sometimes required to provide their own blood through self-mutilation.

It is known that some rituals included acts of cannibalism , with the captor and his family consuming part of the flesh of their sacrificed captives, but it is not known how widespread this practice was.

While human sacrifice was practiced throughout Mesoamerica, the Aztecs, according to their own accounts, brought this practice to an unprecedented level.

For example, for the reconsecration of the Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan in , the Aztecs reported that they sacrificed 80, prisoners over the course of four days, reportedly by Ahuitzotl , the Great Speaker himself.

This number, however, is not universally accepted and may have been exaggerated. The scale of Aztec human sacrifice has provoked many scholars to consider what may have been the driving factor behind this aspect of Aztec religion.

In the s, Michael Harner and Marvin Harris argued that the motivation behind human sacrifice among the Aztecs was actually the cannibalization of the sacrificial victims , depicted for example in Codex Magliabechiano.

Harner claimed that very high population pressure and an emphasis on maize agriculture, without domesticated herbivores, led to a deficiency of essential amino acids among the Aztecs.

Harris, author of Cannibals and Kings , has propagated the claim, originally proposed by Harner, that the flesh of the victims was a part of an aristocratic diet as a reward, since the Aztec diet was lacking in proteins.

Ortiz also points to the preponderance of human sacrifice during periods of food abundance following harvests compared to periods of food scarcity, the insignificant quantity of human protein available from sacrifices and the fact that aristocrats already had easy access to animal protein.

The Aztec greatly appreciated the toltecayotl arts and fine craftsmanship of the Toltec , who predated the Aztec in central Mexico.

The Aztec considered Toltec productions to represent the finest state of culture. The fine arts included writing and painting, singing and composing poetry, carving sculptures and producing mosaic, making fine ceramics, producing complex featherwork, and working metals, including copper and gold.

Artisans of the fine arts were referred to collectively as tolteca Toltec. The Mask of Xiuhtecuhtli; ; cedrela wood, turquoise, pine resin, mother-of-pearl, conch shell, cinnabar ; height: Kneeling female figure; 15th—early 16th century; painted stone; overall: Frog-shaped necklace ornaments; 15th—early 16th century; gold; height: 2.

The Aztecs did not have a fully developed writing system like the Maya, however like the Maya and Zapotec, they did use a writing system that combined logographic signs with phonetic syllable signs.

Aztecs had harsh punishments for crimes that seem simple to us now. For example, a person could get the death penalty for adultery ; cutting down a living tree ; moving the boundary of a field to make their land bigger and someone else's smaller; major theft ; treason ; disorderly conduct causing trouble in public , drunkenness ; and promiscuity.

Under Aztec sumptuary law, a commoner could also get the death penalty for wearing cotton. Aztec 'high lords', who were in the top social class.

Merchants , members of "the commoners," carry things they want to sell a long way away. The Aztecs studied astrology and used the movements of the planets and the stars to create different calendars.

They also had a religious calendar which was made up of days. The Aztecs also studied and taught many complex subjects, including geometry , mathematics , debate , law , music , poetry , architecture , and agriculture.

The most popular Aztec sport was Tlachtili. They played this game using rubber balls and vertical hoops on opposite walls in the middle of the court.

The game's goal was to shoot the ball into the hoop using their knees. The first team to score won the game. The conquistadors defeated the Aztecs, took their empire, and made it into a Spanish colony.

Today many Mexicans have Aztec and other Native American forefathers. People still use Aztec symbols in Mexico. On the Mexican flag , there is a picture of an eagle on a cactus with a snake in its mouth.

This was an Aztec symbol. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Map of city-states in the 16th century.

Main article: Aztec Empire. Main article: Tenochtitlan. Main article: Mesoamerican ball game. Main article: Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire.

Great Empires of the Past: Empire of the Aztecs. Infobase Publishing. Voyages in World History, Volume I. Centgage Learning.

UNM Press. The Aztec World. Benchmark Education Company. Ancient Aztecs. Lorenz Educational Press. Ancient History Encyclopedia.

Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited. Retrieved April 17, Alexander Eds. The American Indian Heritage Foundation. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.

Paul Tice ed. Indians in the Americas. Book Tree. Aztec Medicine, Health and Nutrition. New Brunswick : Rutgers University Press.

Aztec History and Culture.

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